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                                                                            ( Jan 2000  issue)                       MANAGE Bulletin                                       


A Mid-term Review Workshop on Innovations in Technology Dissemination (ITD) Component of NATP was organised at MANAGE during December, 7-8, 1999 wherein 50 participants from Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, , ICAR, State Agricultural Universities, State Nodal Officers, Project Directors and Deputy Project Directors, ATMA, Heads of SAMETIs in the State, World Bank, MANAGE, DOE, Department of Marketing, Govt.of India, NABARD, NCDC, NHDB, SFAC and invitees from UPDASP participated.

The basic objectives of this workshop were : to review the project activities and develop a common understanding of the experiences, in the implementation of project, among the stakeholders; to identify issues to design future course of action;and to review physical and financial progress made so far.

A presentation by Project Directors (PD) of ATMAs was followed by a presentation by state Nodal Officers; MANAGE, DOE and UPDASP along with a review of activities.

The presentation by PD ATMAs indicated that ITD work is picking up momentum and progress has been made in implementing recommendations. The State Nodal officers identified a number of policy issues requiring attention for effective operation of ATMAs and implementation of the work programme. Progress has been made in establishment of SAMETIs.

The second day started with deliberations relating to emerging issues in the implementation of the project. The aspect relating to marketing interventions in the project district evoked enthusiasm and interest among the delegates.
Improved coordination between ATMA and other agriculture Development programmes at district level as well as convergence with other programmes being financed by the central and the state government emerged as the most important issue for the project. Since market intervention is going to be the key for further development in agricultural sector, some decisions with reference to market interventions at ATMA level related to development of district specific marketing strategies for developing time bound action plans including strengthening market intelligence; capacity building of extension staff to respond to marketing related issues; preparation of market related information; representation from marketing organisation in ATMA Governing Board and Farmers Advisory Committee; establishment of close working relationship between marketing committees at block level and Farmers Advisory committee; active involvement of Directorate of Marketing, Government of India, in project districts for developing marketing strategies including linkages with ATMA; involving major stakeholders viz. NHB, NDDB, NCDC, SFAC, Directorate of Marketing for support for market intervention; involvement of farmer groups promoted by NABARD in project implementation.

The Maharashtra experience relating to convergence between ATMA and line departments and with other on going schemes and programmes (Central and State Govt) at district level/ in the district of Ahmednagar was shared. IIM, Lucknow presented a paper on Monitoring & Evaluation system. There was also a discussion on aspects relating to Farmers Organisation (FO) and IT connectivity etc.



The importance of Human Resource Development for Agricultural Extension Management is well recognized. As part of its efforts in strengthening Capacity for HRD for agricultural extension, MANAGE planned programmes for faculty / trainers of Extension Education Institutes (EEIs), State Institutions and Heads of VEO training centres during 1999-2000. The first course was organized at Hyderabad, during November 1-6, 1999, for the states covered by EEI, Rajendranagar viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. The main objective of the programme was to develop skills of trainers in participatory training methods and techniques with focus on the experiential learning approach which MANAGE has been practicing over the years.

There were 11 participants, including seven from A.P. and four from Karnataka. While the focus was on training methods, there were a few sessions for the personal development of trainers as well. The idea was to develop the trainers both in job skills as well as individual development. Thus motivation of trainers found an important place in the coverage.

As regards methodology the focus being skill development, demonstration and practice of different methods, using the participatory approach, were provided. Time was set apart for action planning, i.e, planning for conducting sessions in backhome situation using participatory techniques. The same were presented in the plenary for feedback. This exercise along with the previous practice sessions went a long way in not only familiarizing the trainers with different methods but also in developing skills as well.

With a view to familiarising the participants with experiences of other institutions, a study visit to State Bank Staff College, Hyderabad was organized.

Shri A.K.Goel, Director General, MANAGE delivering the valedictory address highlighted the emerging perspective on development front i.e., knowledge based society. He drew the attention of the trainers on their role in this context and significance of learning from each other. He expressed that while sharing its experience MANAGE would like to learn from the experiences of other institutions and participants as well.

The participants found the course informative, useful and particularly meaningful as it was learning through participatory mode. They were convinced as to how activity oriented training could influence learning and wisdom in the principles of andragogy. The course was coordinated by Shri. V.K. Reddy, Deputy Director, MANAGE.


MANAGE organised a programme on Institutional Capacity Building for Training, at EEI, Jorhat from November 29 to December 03, 1999.

The objectives were

    • To familiarize the participants with the emerging trends and methodologies in training for agricultural extension management.

    • To orient them on approaches and processes for capacity building of training institutions.

    • To get them acquainted with practices for managing the systems and people in training organizations.

There were 15 participants from the states of Assam, Arunchal Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Nagaland, from KVKs, Extension Training Centres, Farmers Training Centres, EEIs and Extension departments of the Agricultural University.

The coverage of the course included Systematic Approach to training; Creating Learning Environment; Participatory and Field Oriented Training Methodologies; Management systems and styles in training organizations; developing faculty and staff; and Information Technology for Training.

The programme was inaugurated by Prof. A.N. Mukhopadyay, Vice Chancellor, Assam Agricultural University and was presided over by Dr. N.K.Mohan, Director of Extension of the university. Prof. Mukhopadyay underlined the importance of interaction with farmers as part of the training. In this context, he emphasized on the value of taking farmers on exposure visits to places outside the state for learning from experiences of their counterparts in other states. He looked forward to more collaboration of EEI with MANAGE. Dr. Mohan in his presidential address mentioned that the themes of the course were useful for heads and trainers of training organizations and stressed that the institutions should work with a missionary zeal.

Besides lecture-cum- discussions, group exercises, film shows on the themes relevant to the course and field visits were organized. A field visit was arranged to Regional Research laboratories, Jorhat to familiarize participants with the managerial aspects of the organisations.

During the valedictory address Prof. Bora, Registrar, Assam Agricultural University called upon the participants to focus their training programmes to facilitate transfer of technologies to the ground and to keep pace with the latest developments.

The faculty of the course included Dr. Gogoi, Dr. Neog and Dr.Sharma of EEI and Shri. V.K. Reddy of MANAGE.

The feedback from the participants indicated that the programme gave them a different orientation as Heads of training institutions. It provided them with a perspective for managing the institutions particularly from the point of view of leadership patterns, motivation and other organizational aspects. The programe also helped to realise the importance of a learning environment and linkages with the villages around the institute for providing practical orientation to training.


Institutionalising Participation in Natural Management

Participatory approaches to natural resource management have mostly been limited to specific instances and initiatives from village based planning to development and implementation of co-management arrangements. Recently, however the focus on a case by case approach has given way to attempts by public and private agencies, including government departments, development agencies, non-governmental organizations, international agencies to adopt and apply participatory approaches on a large scale. While this trend offers scope for increasing active involvement of local resource users in processes that have a bearing on their livelihood security and well being, there is a danger that they may be misapplied in the rush to scale up and spread the new innovations, leading to disillusionment with people centered approaches. Emphasis on diversity, decentralisation and devolution of decision-making powers in management of natural resources implies procedures and organizational cultures that do not impose participation from above.

An action research initiative undertaken by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London and Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, UK is currently examining questions relating to how bureaucracies and their staff can become flexible, innovative and transparent; conditions under which they can ensure that their outcomes promote real participation in natural resource management; appropriate roles for bureaucracies in supporting the engagement of local actors throughout the management process; policies needed to scale up participatory and people centred approaches; and appropriate roles, rights and responsibilities of local groups in dynamics of institutionalizing participation in NRM.

National partners associated with this action research are analysing the dynamics of institutionalising and scaling up participatory processes and approaches for NRM in the context of Gestion des Terriors (village resource management) in Senegal and Burkino Faso; participatory watershed management in India; farmer centered participatory integrated pest management in Indonesia; local sustainable natural resource management plans in Mexico.

Members of the national research teams and staff met in MANAGE, Hyderabad, during December 1-4, 1999 to review progress made in the four country research projects during the first year of action research.

The objectives of the workshop were:

  • To learn about each other's work, share initial research findings, insights and concerns.

  • Critically reflect on experience to date, including problems and new opportunities.

  • Strengthen links and synergies between country case studies and the international components of the action research

  • Problem solving and forward planning

A presentation of the progress on the IIED-IDS project was followed by presentations of country cases and global trends in participation and property rights likely to impact on national studies. These presentations were followed by discussions on learnings from these case studies and implications for the project.

A field visit was organized to Mahboobnagar for an exposure to activities taking place in the district relating to watershed management and self-help groups. This was followed by a presentation, in MANAGE, on participatory video film production by a women's self-help group from Medak district.

The policy implications for India were discussed on the fourth day. This was followed by group discussions of questions raised during the workshop pertaining to issues relating to participation, equity and gender, and livelihoods, institutionalsiation and participation; issues of methodology and learning groups and questions relating to the scope of the study and the outputs and impacts of research. Key learnings and outputs will be discussed with individual country Research Officers as part of a forward planning process.



A meeting on "Priority Setting for Research and Extension" under NATP was organised on December 6th, 1999 at MANAGE. This was sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India in collaboration with MANAGE. Thirty participants representing World Bank, Govt. of India, PIU, NAARM, CRIDA, NCAP, MANAGE, DOE, some Project Directors of ATMA and two representatives from UPDASP participated in this meeting.

The basic objective was to share the experiences of the concerned organisations in terms of Priority Setting for Research and Extension as a necessary step
to be undertaken while developing SREPs in the NATP districts. The second objective was to agree on some modalities to bring in all the stakeholders to support this process of priority setting.

Dr. Ashok Seth, Task Manager (NATP), World Bank stressed the need to integrate research and extension component in preparation of SREP and the need for utilisation of SREP for Research and Extension Planning. Initiating the panel discussion he expressed that there is need to build in rigour in priority setting for preparation of SREP. He also mentioned quantification of farmers feedback as very essential for setting up of priorities.

Sri A.K. Goel, Director General, MANAGE highlighted the emerging trends of decentralisation of decision making, involvement of multiple players in extension and diversification of production systems in view of the changing global scenario.
He pointed out the need for Research-Extension-Farmer-Marketing loop for improving the income of the farmers.

Dr. V.V. Sadamate, Addl. Commissioner (Agri.Extn.), DAC, Govt. of India emphasized the need for linkage between research system and ATMA at the district level.

Dr. G.R. Desai, Project Coordinator & Team Leader (NATP) pointed out the need for shift in the development paradigm among people in extension, research, input supply and farmers. He suggested that ATMA would help to augment the process of paradigm shift for setting up right priorities to the requirements and dovetailing the direction.

Dr. Jha, Director, NCAP emphasised the need for developing a database for deciding the appropriate characterization of agro-ecological and production systems.
He also suggested involvement of organizations for conducting pilot studies and organising workshops on sensitization in priority setting. The need for participation of scientists in SREP exercises, capacity building of staff involved in SREP and use of Decentralized Agricultural Research Priority Setting (DARPS) experiences worked out for research earlier was emphasized by Dr. K.P.C. Rao, Principal Scientist, NAARM. Dr. M.N. Reddy, Consultant (NATP) explained the framework of SREP preparation in all the pilot States and highlighted the participatory methodology being used for priority setting by involvement of farmers in the present context. Dr. V.W. Ambekar, Consultant, UPDASP and Dr.(Mrs.) T.S. Raji Gain, STE, UPDASP highlighted the experiences of SREP under UPDASP and suggested its utility for deciding the adaptive trials. They also felt that the socio-economic analysis is necessary before developing strategies. Dr. K.P.R. Vittal, Principal Scientist, CRIDA (ICAR) focused on the Rainfed Farming Systems and related Crop Production systems to livestock in each situation.

During the afternoon session, Mr. Trejo, Consultant of FAO, Rome gave a presentation on Virtual Extension Research Communication Network (VERCON) system developed by the FAO. He demonstrated the prototype of VERCON System, which can provide a platform for exchange of information between farmers, researchers and extensionists and shared his experiences of implementation of the same in developing countries like Bhutan, Nepal and Mali.

The following decisions were arrived at by the delegates :

    1. Considering the resource constraint and likely multiple objectives to be pursued, priority setting for both research and extension is must.

    2. Agricultural researchers either from SAU, KVK, ICAR need to be involved continuously at different stages of SREP preparation in each district. As a modality, this group of researchers should involve one economist specifically for each district.

    3. Since priority setting both for Research and Extension is a new activity
      to be pursued, it was agreed that NCAP and NAARM would conduct
      a series of training programmes for the researchers and extension personnel on priority setting methodology to be adopted for preparation of SREP in pilot states.

    4. A working group on priority setting for research and extension may be constituted under NATP with representation from MANAGE, NCAP, NAARM, CRIDA, PIU and GOI to coordinate and oversee the execution of these decisions.



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